There are an extensive catalogue of veterinary herbs and herbal formulae which have been used successfully in domestic, companion, equine and wildlife species for a wide range of conditions. Dose rates of herbs would be dependent on the herbal formula, disease severity, species, animal size, condition and individual variation. Herbs can be administered as powder, teapills or capsules and given orally, as enemas, hidden in food, administered by compounding into a palatable slurry given orally, or injected into prey items. When treating amphibians herbs can be prepared as a medicated gel or administered by oral lavage for fish.
Herbal formulae selection is based on the principle of Bian Zheng (differentiation and identification of the pattern presented) and has been used in TCM for some 3600 years. Animals on the earth have co-evolved with plants and thus have gastrointestinal and detoxification systems that are more safely amenable to herbal treatment than most pharmaceutical drugs, although there are exceptions. A competent herbal practitioner knows which herbs may be a problem in some species or when given concurrently with some western drugs.